Neuer Professor für Betriebswirtschaftslehre, insbesondere Handelsmanagement an der Universität des Saarlandes

Privatdozent Dr. Bastian Popp, zurzeit Senior Research Fellow in Sports Business and Marketing an der Leeds Beckett University, erhielt am Dienstag (20.6.17) in der


Staatskanzlei die Ernennungsurkunde zum Professor für Betriebswirtschaftslehre, insbesondere Handelsmanagement.

Vollständige Pressemitteilung: 


Brand Communities: Grundidee, Konzept und empirische Befunde

Brand Communities stellen interessenbasierte Gemeinschaften von Konsumenten dar, die auf eine bestimmte Marke ausgerichtet sind. Sie gehören sicherlich zu den in Wissenschaft und Praxis in den letzten Jahren am häufigsten diskutierten Themen aus dem Markenmanagement. Ich freue mich daher, dass ich nun in einem Beitrag im renommierten Handbuch Markenführung” (Herausgeber: Prof. Dr. Franz-Rudolf Esch) einen Überblick über das Phänomen der Brand Communities geben konnte. Insbesondere werden die zentralen Charakteristika von Markengemeinschaften und Kriterien zur Typologisierung von Brand Communities vorgestellt. Zugleich wird dieses Phänomen von anderen konsumorientierten Gruppen abgegrenzt. Anschließend wird die enorme ökonomische Relevanz von Brand Communities skizziert und die Implikationen in einem Fazit festgehalten.

Bei Interesse: Der Beitrag ist bei SpringerLink (, ResearchGate ( oder natürlich direkt bei mir erhältlich.

Abbildung 1: Typologisierung von Communities nach Interesse, Mediennutzung und Führung (Popp 2017, S. 7)



Popp, B. (2017). Brand Communities: Grundidee, Konzept und empirische Befunde. In F.-R. Esch (Ed.), Handbuch Markenführung (Vol. 2, pp. 1-15). Wiesbaden: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-658-13361-0_43-1



EASM 2017 Workshop: Problematic Issues in Sport Sponsoring: Scepticism, Negative Image Transfer and Reverse Effects

Looking forward you submission to our workshop on „Issues in Sport Sponsoring: Scepticism, Negative Image Transfer and Reverse Effects“ at the 2017 European Association for Sport Management Conference in Bern. Please see the EASM 2017 website for further details:

I am very pleased to organize a workshop together with Chris Horbel on „Problematic Issues in Sport Sponsoring: Scepticism, Negative Image Transfer and Reverse Effects“ at the 25th European Association for Sport Management (EASM) Conference 2017 in Bern, so I would like to take the opportunity to share the rationale for this workshop and encourage submissions and feedback.

Rationale and Aim:

Sponsorships are powerful marketing tools as they use the platform provided by sport events, teams or athletes to co-create value with various other actors, including the sport brand itself, media, fans, casual spectators, and other sponsors (Woratschek et al., 2014). Therefore, academic research has extensively studied the positive effects of sponsorships as a marketing tool and has been particular focused on positive image transfer effects from a sponsored sport entity to a sponsoring company (e.g., Grohs & Reisinger, 2014; Gwinner & Eaton, 1999). However, increasingly, problematic issues related to sponsorships can be observed including consumer scepticism towards sponsoring, negative image transfer effects for sponsors, and reverse image transfers from a sponsor to a sponsee. These emerging crucial challenges to sport sponsorship have so far largely been neglected by academic research. The increasing relevance of these issues calls for a deeper understanding of these phenomena and their consequences for the different actors involved, as well as the development of promising strategies to deal with them.

Recent scandals involving professional sports (e.g., the 2016 English football scandal) and mega sport events (e.g., corruption of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) as the governing body of football’s World Cup) change the sponsoring environment and emerging research demonstrates that perceived corruption of the event-governing body negatively influences the host population’s attitude toward event sponsorship (Kulczycki & Koenigstorfer, 2016). Moreover, the huge amounts of money involved in professional sports foster consumers’ scepticism towards sponsorships as well as accusations of doing harm to the sport, its tradition and its values (Popp, Horbel, & Germelmann, 2016).

Reverse image transfer can be observed as fans are even motivated to fight against particular sponsorships to protect their club from a spillover of negative associations. Social media has fostered such movements to jointly fight against “unloved” sponsors, including companies with a bad reputation (e.g., “Gazprom”, “Wiesenhof”), sponsors with unethical business models (e.g., payday loan lenders “Wonga”, “The Money Shop”), and sponsors that are accused of negatively influencing the sporting competition (e.g. “Red Bull”) (Popp et al., 2016). As sponsorships are regularly embedded in larger networks of multiple co-creating actors, problematic issues can also arise from specific actor constellations in these networks. Prominent examples of such issues arising from problematic network constellations are the consequences of rivalries for the perceptions and effectiveness of sponsorships. Recent research has demonstrated their relevance and highlighted the need for sponsors to consider the size and scope of out-groups when they configure their sponsorship activities (Angell, Gorton, Bottomley, & White, 2016; Bee & Dalakas, 2015).

With the crucial role of sponsorships both for the sport and within companies’ marketing strategies, it is paramount that scholars and practitioners shed more light on the above mentioned phenomena and further deepen our understanding of the effectiveness of sponsorships in critical environments. In addition, different actors’ value perceptions should be taken into consideration and image transfer effects within a sponsoring portfolio, i.e. among the sponsors of a club, athlete, or organising entity, deserve study. Finally, more insightful practical implications and directions need to be developed and strategies should be implemented.

Therefore, the aim of this workshop is to identify and discuss current problematic issues in sport sponsoring and to provide guidelines for sport managers and sponsors for the successful management and design of sport sponsorships.


Angell, R. J., Gorton, M., Bottomley, P., & White, J. (2016). Understanding fans’ responses to the sponsor of a rival team. European Sport Management Quarterly, 16(2), 190-213.

Bee, C., & Dalakas, V. (2015). Rivalries and sponsor affiliation: Examining the effects of social identity and argument strength on responses to sponsorship-related advertising messages. Journal of Marketing Communications, 21(6), 408-424.

Grohs, R., & Reisinger, H. (2014). Sponsorship effects on brand image: The role of exposure and activity involvement. Journal of Business Research, 67(5), 1018-1025.

Gwinner, K. P., & Eaton, J. (1999). Building Brand Image Through Event Sponsorship: The Role of Image Transfer. Journal of Advertising, 28(4), 47-57.

Kulczycki, W., & Koenigstorfer, J. (2016). Why sponsors should worry about corruption as a mega sport event syndrome. European Sport Management Quarterly, 16(5), 545-574.

Popp, B., Horbel, C., & Germelmann, C. C. (2016). Nature and Consequences of Social Media-based Anti-brand Activism Against Sponsors and Investors of Sport Teams. Paper presented at the 2016 AMS 19th World Marketing Congress, Paris.

Further information:

Abstract submission deadline is 20 April 2017. For further information please see the #easm2017 call for papers:

Find out more about our workshop:

I’d also like to invite you to our corresponding project on ResearchGate:

Submission Requirements

  • Standard conference abstract


Bastian Popp, Leeds Beckett University
Chris Horbel, University of Southern Denmark

“We love to hate them!”

The Football Collective

How and why social media-based anti-brand communities build around professional football teams and how this affects the team, its sponsors, and the sport itself

Dr Bastian Popp (Leeds Beckett University) describes his recent article with colleagues, titled: We love to hate them! Social media-based anti-brand communities in professional football. The authors investigate anti-brand communities opposing a particular football team and highlight its negative and positive effects for football clubs, their sponsors and fans, and the sport itself.

Social media have promoted anti-brand communities, which are based on common aversions to brands (Hollenbeck & Zinkhan, 2006). Our study contributes to previous research by investigating this phenomenon in the context of social networking sites. In particular, we examine the nature of social media-based anti-brand communities opposing a professional football team and consider the effects on the team sports brand in question. Anti-brand communities are of particular importance for sport teams…

Ursprünglichen Post anzeigen 333 weitere Wörter

Branded communities in sport for building strong brand relations in social media

The Football Collective

By Bastian Popp, Leeds Beckett University

Dr Bastian Popp (Leeds Beckett University) describes his recent article with colleagues, titled: Introducing branded communities in sport for building strong brand relations in social media, reflecting on the usefulness of operating or sponsoring online communities with an interest in football for non-sports companies. The authors describe branded communities as a promising concept for brand managers and emphasize that sport offers a perfect context for branded communities.

Brand communities, which represent a “specialized, non-geographically bound community, based on a structured set of social relationships among admirers of a brand“, have become an important aspect for brand management in social media. However, many brands have failed to establish a successful online brand community. In this study, we introduce branded communities as an alternative concept to brand communities. In contrast to brand communities, a branded community does not revolve around a specific (sport) brand, but around…

Ursprünglichen Post anzeigen 263 weitere Wörter

“We love to hate them!”

How and why social media-based anti-brand communities build around professional football teams and how this affects the team, its sponsors, and the sport itself Dr Bastian Popp (Leeds Beckett Unive…

Quelle: “We love to hate them!”

Handbuch Dienstleistungsmanagement mit Beiträgen zu Value Co-Creation, Wertschöpfungskonfigurationen und Qualitätsmessung erschienen


Mit dem „Handbuch Dienstleistungsmanagement“ ist ein neues Standardwerk für Wissenschaft und Praxis zur aktuellen Dienstleistungsforschung erschienen. Ich freue mich, dass ich (zusammen mit meinen Ko-Autoren Herbert Woratschek und Chris Horbel) drei Beiträge zu den Themen „Value Co-Creation“, „Wertschöpfungskonfigurationen“ und „Qualitätsmessung“ beitragen durfte:

  • Horbel, C., Woratschek, H., & Popp, B. (2016). Value Co-Creation. In H. Corsten & S. Roth (Eds.), Handbuch Dienstleistungsmanagement (pp. 63-78). München: Vahlen. (über ResearchGate anfordern)
  • Popp, B., Horbel, C., & Woratschek, H. (2016). Wertkette, Wertshop und Wertnetzwerk. In H. Corsten & S. Roth (Eds.), Handbuch Dienstleistungsmanagement (pp. 507-517). München: Vahlen. (über ResearchGate anfordern)
  • Woratschek, H., Popp, B., & Horbel, C. (2016). Merkmalsorientierte Ansätze der Qualitätsmessung. In H. Corsten & S. Roth (Eds.), Handbuch Dienstleistungsmanagement (pp. 1197-1217). München: Vahlen.  (über ResearchGate anfordern)

Bei Interesse an den Beiträgen, bei kurz melden, dann sende ich Sie gerne zu. Weitere Informationen zum Handbuch gibt es beim Verlag Vahlen:

Consumers’ relationships with brands and brand communities – Empirical findings on the multifaceted roles of identification and satisfaction

Ipopp_woratschek_2016_seite_01 am pleased that my paper (together with Herbert Woratschek) “Consumers’ relationships with brands and brand communities – The multifaceted roles of identification and satisfaction” has been published in the Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services (free download until 19/01/2017 via

In the last decades, a clear shift in marketing from transactions to relations could be observed and it is highlighted by the success of relationship marketing. While for a long time publications particularly focussed on the important role of customer satisfaction as a core relationship driver more recently consumers’ identification with a company has been introduced as a construct and a driver of relationship. In our paper integrate relationship marketing and brand management literature to study the role of consumer-brand identification and customer satisfaction as core relationship drivers to study their interrelationships as well as the effects on customer loyalty and word-of-mouth communication. Considering multiple interacting targets of identification in brand communities, the empirical study unfolds the multifaceted, context-specific relevance of identification and satisfaction: While the effect of identification on brand loyalty is mediated by customer satisfaction, satisfaction has no significant effect on community loyalty. Moreover, brand communities are particularly useful for gaining new customers, whereas no increase in brand loyalty could be found. Managers are generally advised to specify constructs of interest related to different relevant targets of identification.

Full-text download available at the journal website (free of charge until 19/01/2017) and via ResearchGate (subscription free).

Reference: Popp, B., & Woratschek, H. (2017). Consumers’ relationships with brands and brand communities – The multifaceted roles of identification and satisfaction. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 35, 46-56. doi: 10.1016/j.jretconser.2016.11.006

Mission completed, now let’s continue the journey…

img_20150728_100258Dear colleagues,
Almost three years ago, the European Sport Management Quarterly 2014/1 special issue on „value co-creation in sport management“ was published (, so I think it is time to leave a short wrap-up and say thank you to all contributors, reviewers, and academics who continue our journey with us! I look back to a successful series of workshops on “Value co-creation in sport management” at the 2012 EASM conference in Aalborg and the 2013 EASM conference in Istanbul, the publication of the special issue in 2014 in the European Sport Management Quarterly, and its subsequent publication as a book in 2015. Since then, the five papers in the special issue have been extremely well-perceived with some being among the 10 most read articles of ESMQ and many of them having a unique contribution that is carried on in subsequent research:
The aim of the special issue was to spark the debate over value co-creation in the context of sport management and I am very happy to see that both the above mentioned articles in the special issue and numerous more recent papers have picked up the perspective of value co-creation. I recently published an article together with Chris Horbel, Bradley Wilson and Herbert Woratschek, in which we apply the perspective of service-dominant logic, specifically value co-creation in service ecosystems to the context of sports, continue the debate and to develop better theories, and to provide guidelines for sport managers. including our own article on “How Context Shapes Value Co-Creation: Spectator Experience of Sport Events” (
I am looking forward to seeing you at the EASM conference 2017 in Bern!

Why Context Matters! A Service Ecosystems Perspective on Sport Event Experience: Investigating Value-in-Context


When talking about value co-creation in football and sport spectator experience different contexts have to be distinguished. Therefore, I am pleased that our paper “How Context Shapes Value Co-Creation: Spectator Experience of Sport Events” has been published in the Special Issue “Developing a service research agenda in sports” of The Service Industries Journal.

In this paper, Chris Horbel, Bastian Popp, Herbert Woratschek, and Bradley Wilsonapply the perspective of service-dominant logic, specifically value co-creation in service ecosystems to the context of sports. The research builds on the notion that co-created value can only be understood as value-in-context. Therefore, a structural model is developed and tested for spectating live broadcasts of football games during the FIFA World Cup 2014 in different contexts (1. Public Screening, 2. Bar/ Pub/ Restaurant, 3. Viewing with Others at Home, 4. Viewing Alone at Home). The context-specific contributions of the co-creating actors, spectators’ experience evaluations, and the resulting context-specific value perceptions from the spectators’ perspective are identified. The results highlight that the relative influence of the main co-creating actors and the relative importance of the value dimensions differ across contexts. Service providers (in sports) should identify how consumers evaluate experience and which dimensions of value are most important to them in the context under consideration. This will help them to successfully facilitate value co-creation, make meaningful value propositions, and achieve strategic benefit for themselves.

The full-text is available at the journal website and via ResearchGate (subscription free).

Horbel, C., Popp, B., Woratschek, H., & Wilson, B. (2016). How Context Shapes Value Co-Creation: Spectator Experience of Sport Events. The Service Industries Journal, 36(11-12), 510-531. doi: 10.1080/02642069.2016.1255730